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Oncology emergencies

Oncologic emergencies:


Oncologic emergencies are complications resulting from cancer and/or its treatment. They require immediate intervention, and sometimes patients must be monitored in an intensive care setting until the situation improves.

Critical thinking early on is key for these patients, because they often do not present with the classic signs and symptoms compared to an overall "healthy" patient.

The most common oncologic emergencies:




• Septic shock

• Tumor lysis syndrome

• DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

• SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone hypersecretion)

• Cardiac tamponade

• Superior vena cava syndrome

• Malignant pleural effusion

• Spinal cord compression


SEPTIC SHOCK

Assess for tachypnea, tachycardia, hypotension, organ dysfunction, and hyper/ hypothermia, Obtain blood, urine and wound cultures, chest X-ray, & CT scan, Administer, where indicated, antibiotics, IV hydration, and vaspressors. Most of patients will require I C U monitoring................ details


TUMOR LYSIS SYNDROME

Assess for signs and symptoms of severe metabolic imbalance: hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia. Obtain complete metabolic panel and urinalysis, Administer prophylactic Allopurinol, IV hydration, rasburicase may be needed and (for patients with ) hemodialysis......... details


SIADH

Assess for hyponatremia and associated symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, cerebral edema, hypertension, urine osmolality, and fluid overload. Obtain complete metabolic panel and urinalysis. Administer hypertonic saline and vasopressin receptor antagonists,   & fluid restrictions.......details


SVC SYNDROME

Compression or invasion of the superior vena cava by tumor, enlarged lymph nodes, intraluminal thrombus that obstructs venous circulation, or drainage of the head, neck, arms, and thorax..............detais

SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION

compression of the cord and its nerve roots may result from tumor, lymphomas, or intervertebral collapse. Potentially leading to permanent neurologic impairment and associated morbidity and .........details

CARDIAC TAMPONADE

prepare client for echocardiography administer intravenous fluids and/or vasopressors if ordered to maintain mean arterial pressure prepare client for surgical drainage of pericardial fluid............details